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Introduction

The Engineering sector is the largest in the overall industrial sectors in India. It is a diverse industry with a number of segments, and can be broadly categorised into two segments, namely, heavy engineering and light engineering. The engineering sector is relatively less fragmented at the top, as the competencies required are high, while it is highly fragmented at the lower end (e.g. unbranded transformers for the retail segment) and is dominated by smaller players.

The engineering industry in India manufactures a wide range of products, with heavy engineering goods accounting for bulk of the production. Most of the leading players are engaged in the production of heavy engineering goods and mainly produces high-value products using high-end technology. Requirement of high level of capital investment poses as a major entry barrier. Consequently, the small and unorganised firms have a small market presence.

The light engineering goods segment, on the other hand, uses medium to low-end technology. Entry barrier is low on account of the comparatively lower requirement of capital and technology. This segment is characterised by the dominance of small and unorganised players which manufacture low-value added products. However, there are few medium and large scale firms which manufacture high-value added products. This segment is also characterised by small capacities and high level of competition among the players.

Classification of the Engineering Sector in India

User Segments

The major end-user industries for heavy engineering goods are power, infrastructure, steel, cement, petrochemicals, oil & gas, refineries, fertilisers, mining, railways, automobiles, textiles, etc. Light engineering goods are essentially used as inputs by the heavy engineering industry.

Key Growth Drivers of Indian Engineering Sector

The engineering sector in India has been growing on the back of growth in the user industries and several new projects being undertaken in various core industries such as railways, power, infrastructure, etc. Capacity creation in sectors such as infrastructure, oil & gas, power, mining, automobiles, auto components, steel, refinery, consumer durables, etc, is driving growth of the engineering industry.

FDI Inflows in the Engineering Sector – Aug 91 to Dec 06

*Includes Computer Software & Electronics; ~Other than Electrical
Source: Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion

Heavy Engineering Sector

The heavy engineering sector can be classified into two broad segments – capital goods/machinery (which is further classified as electrical machinery/equipment and non-electrical machinery/equipment), and equipment segments.

Electrical machinery includes the following: power generation, transmission and distribution equipments such as generators and motors, transformers and switchgears. Non-electrical machinery includes machines/equipments used in various sectors such as material handling equipments (earth moving machinery, excavators, cranes, etc), boilers, etc.

Heavy Electrical Industry

The fortunes of the heavy electrical industry have been closely linked to the development of the power sector in India. The heavy electrical industry has under its purview power generation, transmission, distribution and utilisation equipments. These include turbo generators, boilers, turbines, transformers, switchgears and other allied items. These electrical equipments (transformers, switchgears, etc) are used by almost all the sectors. Some of the major areas where these are used include power generation projects, petrochemical complexes, chemical plants, integrated steel plants, non-ferrous metal units, etc.

The existing installed capacity of the India heavy electrical industry is 4,500 MW of thermal, 1,345 MW of hydro and about 250 MW of gas-based power generation equipment per annum. The industry has the capability to manufacture transmission and distribution equipment upto 400 KV AC and high voltage DC.

The Heavy Electrical Industry can be classified into the following product categories:

1. Turbines and Generator Sets

The Indian industry has established a manufacturing capacity of various kinds of turbines of more than 7,000 MW per annum. The PSE Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (BHEL) has the largest installed capacity. There are units in the private sector also which manufacture steam and hydro turbines for power generation and industrial use. Domestic manufacturers of AC generators are capable of manufacturing AC generator from 0.5 KVA to 25,000 KVA and above.

2. Boilers

The Indian boilers industry has the capability to manufacture boilers with super critical parameters upto 1,000 MW unit size. BHEL is the largest manufacturer of boilers in the country, with a market share of over 60%. It has the capability to manufacture boilers for super thermal power plants, apart from utility boilers and industrial boilers.

Source: Ministry of Heavy Industries, Annual Report; (Rs mn)

3. Transformers

The domestic transformer industry has the capability to manufacture the whole range of power and distribution transformers. Special types of transformers required for furnaces, rectifiers, electric tract, etc, and series and shunt reactors as well as HVDC transmission upto 500 KV are also being manufactured in India.

Source: Ministry of Heavy Industries, Annual Report; (Rs mn)

The Indian transformer industry exports to over 50 countries including the US, Europe, South Africa, Cyprus, Syria, Iraq, and Far East countries. During FY05, exports of transformers rose by 15.4% to Rs 8,983 mn, which came on top of the sharp 39% jump in exports during the preceding year.

4. Switchgear and Control Gear

The switchgear and control gear industry in India is a fully developed one, producing and supplying a wide variety of switchgear and control gear items required by the industrial and power sectors. The entire range of circuit breakers from bulk oil, minimum oil, air blast, vacuum to SF6 are manufactured to standard specification. The range of products produced cover the entire voltage range for 240V to 800KV, switchgear and control gear, MCBs, air circuit breakers, switches, rewireable fuses and HRC fuses with their respective fuse bases, holders and starters.

Source: Ministry of Heavy Industries, Annual Report; (Rs mn)

5. Electrical Furnaces

Electrical furnaces are used in Metallurgical and engineering industries such as forging and foundry, machine tools, automobiles, etc.

Source: Ministry of Heavy Industries, Annual Report; (Rs mn)

6. Shunting Locomotives

Shunting locomotives for internal transport facilities are essentially used in railways, steel plants, thermal power plants, etc.

Trend in Production of Various Categories of Heavy Electrical Machinery

Source: Ministry of Heavy Industries, Annual Report FY06; (Rs bn)

Characteristics of the Indian Capital Goods Sector

 

Source: IAS (CMIE) & D&B Research

Leading Players in Heavy Electrical Industry

Source: Prowess; Compiled by D&B Research

Classification of the Heavy Engineering and Machine Tool Industry as per the Department of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises:

1. Textile Machinery Industry

The textile machinery industry in India manufactures machinery needed for sorting, cording, processing of yarns/ fabrics and weaving, alongwith the components, spares and accessories. As per the Ministry of Heavy Industries, there are over 600 units engaged in the manufacture of machinery and spares, and out of these, about 100 units are manufacturing complete machinery.

As per the Ministry’s estimates, the industry has an installed capacity of Rs 30.5 bn, with a capital investment of Rs 15 bn. The following table depicts the Indian textile machinery industry’s performance during FY03-FY05:

Trend in Production & Exports

Source: Ministry of Heavy Industries Annual Report FY06; (Rs bn)

With the buoyant outlook on textile exports, the Indian textile machinery industry is gearing itself to take advantage of the vast opportunities of supplying machines required to cater to export target of garment manufacturers, post the Multi Fibre Arrangement.

2. Cement Machinery Industry

The Indian cement machinery industry manufactures complete cement plants, based on dry processing and pre-calcination technology, for capacities upto 7500 TPD. The existing installed capacity of the industry is estimated to be Rs 6 bn/annum. According to the Ministry of Heavy Industries, presently there are 18 units in the organsied sector for the manufacture of complete cement plant machinery.

3. Sugar Machinery Industry

As per the estimates of the Ministry of Heavy Industries, there are presently 27 units in the organised sector for the manufacture of complete sugar plants and components. The industry’s installed capacity is estimated to be Rs 200 crore. The industry can manufacture sugar plants for a capacity upto 10,000 TCD (tonnes crushing per day). India is a net exporter of sugar machinery. The following table shows the growing exports during FY03-FY05:

Trade in Sugar Machinery

Source: Ministry of Heavy Industries, Annual Report FY06; (Rs mn)

4. Rubber Machinery Industry

The rubber machinery industry in India manufactures inters-mixer, tyre curing presses, tyre moulds, tyre building machines, turnet servicer, bias cutters, rubber injection moulding machine, bead wires, etc. According to the Ministry of Heavy Industries, currently there are 19 units in the organised sector for the manufacture of rubber machinery mainly required for tyre/tube industry.

The Indian rubber machinery manufacturing industry is a net exporter. The table below shows the trend in India’s trade in rubber machinery during FY03-FY05:

Trade in Rubber Machinery

Source: Ministry of Heavy Industries, Annual Report FY06; (Rs mn)

5. Material Handling Equipment Industry

The Indian material handling equipment industry manufactures a range of equipments including crushing and screening plants, coal/ore/ash handling plant and associated equipment such as stackers, reclaimers, ship loaders/unloaders, wagon tipplers, feeders, etc. The industry caters to the requirement of a host of core industries such as coal, cement, power, port, mining, fertilizers and steel plants. The Ministry of Heavy Industries estimates the presence of 50 units in the organsied sector for the manufacture of material handling equipments. Apart from the organsied players, there are a number of units present in the small scale sector.

Imports of material handling equipments exceed their exports. Though comparatively much smaller than imports, exports have recorded buoyant growth in the recent years. The following table depicts the trend in trade in material handling equipments:

Trade in MH Equipments

Source: Ministry of Heavy Industries, Annual Report FY06; (Rs bn)

6. Oil Field Equipment Industry

The oil field equipment manufacturing industry manufactures drilling rigs for on-shore drilling. Offshore drilling equipments like jack-up rigs, etc are not manufactured indigenously. The industry however manufactures offshore platforms and certain other technological structures domestically. Bharat Heavy Electricals, Hindustan Shipyard, Mazagon Dock and Burn & Co. are some of the leading producers. The recent couple of years have witnessed a surge in exports of oil field equipments. However, the industry remains a net importer, as can be seen from the table below:

Trade in Oil Field Equipments

Source: Ministry of Heavy Industries, Annual Report FY06; (Rs bn)

7. Metallurgical Industry

According to the Ministry of Heavy Industries, currently there are 39 units in the organised sector which are engaged in the manufacture of metallurgical machinery. Metallurgical machinery includes equipments for mineral benefication, ore dressing, size reduction, steel plant equipments, foundry equipments and furnaces.

There being a technological gap in the basic design and engineering for plants and equipments in the ferrous and non-ferrous sector, the domestic manufacturers depend on imported technological know-how.

Trade in Metallurgical Machinery

Source: Ministry of Heavy Industries, Annual Report FY06; (Rs bn)

8. Mining Machinery Industry

The various type of mining equipments include Longwall mining equipments, road header, side dischargers loader, haulage winder, ventilation fan, load haul dumper, coal cutter, conveyors, battery locos, pumps, friction prop, etc. The Ministry of Heavy Industries estimates the presence of 32 manufacturers of mining machinery both in the public and private sector for underground and surface mining equipments. Out of these, 17 units manufacture underground mining equipments. Exports of mining machinery were observed to be negligible, as compared to their imports.

Trade in Mining Machinery

Source: Ministry of Heavy Industries, Annual Report FY06; (Rs mn)

9. Dairy Machinery Industry

The Indian dairy machinery manufacturers produce a range of equipments including stainless steel dairy equipments, evaporators, milk refrigerators and storage tanks, milk and cream deodorizers, centrifuges, clarifiers, agitators, homogenisers, spray dryers and heat exchangers (tubular and plate type), etc. As per the Ministry of Heavy Industries, presently there are 16 units manufacturing dairy machinery and equipment in the organised sector, both in private and public sector.

India is a net importer of dairy machinery. The table below indicates the same:

Trade in Dairy Machinery

Source: Ministry of Heavy Industries, Annual Report FY06; (Rs mn)

The Indian engineering industry is highly competitive, with several companies having a presence in each of the segments. Several multinational companies of the likes of ABB, Siemens, Honda, Cummins, have entered the industry.

Some Leading Players in the Heavy Engineering Industry

Source: Prowess; Compiled by D&B Research

10. Machine Tool Industry

The machine tool industry is regarded as the backbone of the entire industrial engineering industry. The Indian machine tool industry manufactures almost the entire range of metal-cutting and metal-forming machine tools. Apart from conventional machine tools and Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machines, the Indian industry also offers other variants such as special purpose machines, robotics, handling systems, and TPM-friendly machines.

The Ministry of Heavy Industries estimates the presence of around 150 machine tool manufacturers in the organised sector and around 300 units in the small ancillary sector. Nearly 73% of the total machine tools production in India is contributed by the leading 10 companies in the industry. The industry has an installed capacity of over Rs 10 bn and employs a workforce (direct/indirect) of 65,000 skilled and unskilled persons.

The machine tool manufacturers in India produce general purpose machinery of international standards (in terms of quality, precision and reliability). However, they lag behind in terms of design and engineering capability so as to be able to undertake very high precision CNC (Computer Numerically Controlled) machines. Due to the gap in technology for special purpose machines and some categories of CNC machines, import of technology is encouraged to bridge this gap.

Leading Players in Machine Tools Industry

Source: Ministry of Heavy Industries; Compiled by D&B Research

Maharashtra (Mumbai and Pune), Punjab (Jalandhar and Ludhiana), Gujarat (Ahmedabad, Baroda, Jamnagar and Rajkot), Tamil Nadu (Chennai and Coimbatore) and Karnataka (Bangalore and Mysore), and some parts of eastern India are the hub of manufacturing activities in the machine tools industry.

The machine tools industry is a highly fragmented one. The growth in the industry is demand-driven, which comes from various sectors such as automobiles, engineering, defence, textile machinery, aviation, etc. The rising demand for machine tools can be gauged from the sharp increase in production of machine tools. Imports are also growing sharply. Imports data for FY03-FY05 shows a whopping 114.1% jump in imports in FY04 and a further 88.7% increase in FY05. Machine tools manufacturers face the threat of imports from Taiwan and China which are the most cost-competitive countries in machine tools.

Performance of Machine Tool Industry

Source: Ministry of Heavy Industries, Annual Report FY06; (Rs bn)

Over the years, the industry’s focus has moved from standard machines to NC and CNC machines. This has also resulted in improvement in technology, enhancement in quality and cost competitiveness.

Light Engineering Industry

The Indian light engineering industry is highly diversified, comprising of a number of distinctive sectors and sub-sectors. The product range in this industry varies from highly sophisticated microprocessor based process control equipment and diagnostic medical instruments to low-tech items such as castings, forgings, and fasteners, among others. The sector also includes products such as bearings, steel pipes and tubes, etc. Most of the products in the light engineering industry serve as inputs for the capital goods industry. The health of the light engineering industry is therefore dictated by the demand for capital goods.

The major sub-segments within this industry are:

1. Medical and Surgical Instruments

The medical and surgical instruments segment includes a wide array of equipments and apparatuses. These include medical and surgical instruments, dental equipment, electro-medical apparatus, orthopaedic appliances, physiotherapy equipments, X-ray machines, among others. These instruments find application in diagnosis, therapy, and patient monitoring and thus play a crucial role in the healthcare delivery system.

Output of the Indian medical and surgical instruments industry, which is around four decades old, was very small until a few years back. In recent years, liberalisation and growing health awareness has accelerated the growth of the domestic industry and also led to a rise in imports of medical and surgical instruments into India. Domestic production comprises of wide range of medical equipment including Electro-Cardiograph (ECG) machines, X-ray machines, electro-surgical instruments, blood chemistry analysers, among others. The domestic industry meets around 40% of the demand for medical equipment, while the rest is met through imports. Demand for sophisticated instruments such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanners, multi channel monitors, among others are met through imports. Majority of the end-users prefer to deal with foreign companies, as Indian manufacturers who are concentrated in the small-scale sector are not able to provide after sales service. Exports and imports of medical and surgical instruments were Rs 14.3 bn and Rs 28.7 bn respectively.

Rising income levels, growing health consciousness, and rise of medical tourism are expected to drive the demand for medical and surgical instruments. Government’s commitment to improve healthcare facilities and liberalisation of trade and investments laws would also expand the market for medical and surgical instruments.

2. Process Control Instruments

Process control instruments and systems are instruments and systems used for measurement and control of process variables. Process variables are physical or chemical parameters, the variations of which can affect the operation of a manufacturing process. These variables include humidity, pressure, temperature, liquid level, flow, vacuum, vibration, specific gravity, and chemical composition including pH, among others. Use of process control instruments and systems is highly significant in large and sophisticated process industries such as fertilisers, power plant, steel, cement plants, petroleum refineries, and petrochemical industries, among others.

The industry is delicensed and 100% FDI is permitted in this sector. There are 26 units in the organised sector engaged in the manufacture of process control instruments and systems. Seven of these 26 units are capable of implementing the entire instrumentation system including software required by the process industries. The domestic manufacturers meet around two-thirds of India’s demand for process control instruments and systems.

Transfer of technology has been the major cornerstone for the development of the domestic process control instruments and system industry. There exists a gap between technology adopted in India and contemporary international technology. Technology presently used in the Indian industry is microprocessor based centralised control system. The Indian industry is capable of handling open control systems and smart control devices; however, latest developments such as total integrated management and control approach, which are currently being adopted in the developed countries, are yet to be adopted in the country.

Demand for these instruments and systems are dependant largely on the progress of implementation of various mega projects in the fields of power, steel, fertilisers, petrochemicals and refineries. Exports in this industry have not recorded significant growth over the years. Technology gap between technology adopted in India and international adopted technology combined with fast obsolescence, lack of standardisation and quality control have all led to lower exports from the country. During FY05, exports and imports of the process control instruments and systems were Rs 5.4 bn and Rs 28.9 bn respectively.

3. Antifriction roller bearing

Roller bearings are components used to reduce or eliminate friction between moving parts and thus reduce wear & tear of machines. They help improve machine performance and are thus a critical component of any equipment that rotates. It finds varied application, ranging from simple electric fans to complex space rockets. Depending on its usage, a bearing may have to withstand prolonged use, high-speed rotation, varied temperatures, or a corrosive environment. Bearings are available in two distinctive shapes, ball, and roller. There are four different types of roller bearings – cylindrical roller bearings, needle roller bearings, tapered roller bearings and spherical roller bearings.

The Indian bearing industry has recorded good growth in the past few years. The Indian manufacturers are able to meet around 70% of the demand for general purpose bearings. The Indian bearing industry’s product range comprises of around 500 types of bearings. Indian manufacturers do not produce special purpose bearings as demand for the same is low and investments required are huge as bearings is a capital intensive industry,. Special purpose bearings are therefore imported.

The bearings industry is highly fragmented. There are around 20 units in the organised sector engaged in the manufacture of ball and roller bearings. The organised sector caters to both the original equipment manufacturers and replacement market. The unorganised sector, which manufacturers low quality small bearings caters to the replacement market. The manufacturing activity of a few small-scale units is restricted to assembly of imported components.

Automobile industry is the major user industry for the bearings industry. Given the growing demand for automobiles in the country, demand for bearings would increase in the coming years. During FY06, production of bearings stood at 327.6 mn numbers. Imports and exports of bearings during the same period were Rs 16.8 bn and Rs 8.3 bn respectively.

4. Industrial Fasteners

Industrial fasteners cover a wide range of products such as nuts, screws, bolts, studs, rivets, nails, washers, etc. Fasteners can be broadly classified into two groups, high tensile strength fasteners, and mild steel fasteners depending on their tensile strength. Manufacturer of high tensile fasteners requires superior technology and are mainly manufactured in the organised sector, while, manufacturing of mild steel fasteners is concentrated in the unorganised sector. In fact, manufacture of all types of fasteners except high tensile fasteners and special purpose fasteners are reserved for the SSI sector. Fasteners are used in the assembly of engineering systems.

The automobile industry is the largest consumer of fasteners. The other major user-segments are textile machinery, railway locomotives, construction, computer hardware and general engineering. There exists huge export potential for Indian industrial fasteners, however, poor product standardisation, relatively higher raw material costs, and low labour productivity make Indian fasteners less competitive in the global market.

During FY05, exports and imports of industrial fasteners were Rs 7.6 bn and Rs 4.8 bn respectively. Domestic production during the same period was 78,252 tonnes. The Indian fasteners industry is expected to fare well in the medium term driven by demand mainly from the automobile segment and the construction industry.

5. Ferrous Castings

Ferrous castings constitute essential intermediates for automobiles, industrial machines, power plants, chemicals & fertiliser plants and cement plants, among others. They are therefore vital for the growth and development of the engineering industry. The domestic industry is well established. Being a highly polluting industry, many of the developed countries are withdrawing from this industry. This gives rise to a huge export potential for Indian manufacturers. To capitalise on this export demand, leading manufacturers have undertaken modernisation and up gradation of their manufacturing facilities to improve productivity and product quality and also economise on production costs. Given the wide spread usage of castings across industries and huge export potential, there exists considerable scope for establishing additional capacity in this area.

6. Steel Forgings

The forging industry has emerged as one of the major contributors to the manufacturing sector of the Indian economy. Depending on the scale of operations, the industry can be categorised as large, medium, small, and tiny. SMEs comprise a major portion of this industry. The industry consists of around 330 odd units, of which there are around 100 units in the medium and small sector, and only around 9-10 units are present in the large scale. There are huge numbers of units functioning in the tiny sector.

Increasing globalisation has led to sharp rise in investments in the sector. This has led to the industry becoming capital intensive from being labour intensive. Total investment in the large and medium sectors of the forging industry is estimated to be around US $ 600 mn. To expand their markets and have a global reach, the small-scale units are also increasing their capital investments. The small-scale units have upgraded their facilities in terms of technology and quality and a number of them are now suppliers to Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) in the automobile sector. The automotive industry is the major end-user of the forging industry. The other user industries include industrial machines, railways, oil & gas, power plants, and chemical plants, among others.

The Indian forgings industry has made rapid strides and currently not only meets the almost the entire domestic demand, but has also emerged as a large exporter of forgings. The industry has been able to expand its presence in the global markets, which is reflected in the almost 30% growth in exports during FY05 to US $ 250 mn. The major export markets are USA, Europe, and China. The outlook for the industry looks promising, backed by the robust demand from the domestic automotive sector and from the global markets.

7. Seamless Steel Pipes & Tubes

Seamless steel pipes & tubes find widespread usage in the hydrocarbon industries, processing & general engineering industries. Boiler pipes, as the name suggests are used in boilers, heat exchangers, super heaters, among others, while casing & tubing are used for drilling of oil and gas. Seamless pipes find application in industries where strength, resistance to corrosion and long shelf life are critical. The industry is delicensed and 100% FDI is permitted in the sector under the automatic route.

The oil sector is the major end-user segment of seamless pipes & tubes. The other user segments include boilers, ball bearings, automobiles, chemical plants, fertilisers, petrochemical plants, industrial machinery, among others. The oil sector accounts for around 60% of total demand, while, the bearings, automobiles, and boiler sector account for around 30% of total demand. There could be a significant shift in the demand pattern for seamless pipes and tubes due to the robust growth expected in the power and automobile sectors.

8. Electrical Resistance Welded (ERW) Steel Pipes & Tubes

ERW steel pipes & tubes find widespread usage across industries and fields. In addition to various engineering industries, they are used for water, oil and gas distribution, line pipes, fencing, scaffolding, etc. They are also used for agricultural purposes, drinking water supply, thermal power, for hand pumps for deep boring wells and also as protection for cables (telecom), among others. Depending on the requirement of the end user industry, ERW steel pipes & tubes are available in various wall thicknesses, diameters, and qualities. The different types include line precision pipes, tubular poles, electric poles, lightweight galvanised pipes for sprinkler irrigation, among others. The industry has sufficient capacity to manufacture the different types of pipes & tubes. High performance ERW steel pipes & tubes possess high strength, toughness and are corrosion resistant.

In the manufacturing process of ERW steel pipes & tubes, the edges to be welded are mechanically pressed together and electric resistance or electric induction is used to generate the heat required for welding. With the adoption of better welding technology, ERW pipes & tubes are now widely used in the oil & gas sector. A number of ERW steel pipes & tubes production units are in the SSI sector. Higher demand from the oil & gas industry, infrastructure, and automobile industries has led to a healthy increase in production of ERW steel pipes.

9. Submerged-Arc Welded (SAW) Pipes

SAW pipes are mainly used for oil & gas transportation and water distribution. SAW pipes are of two major types, longitudinal and helical welded SAW pipes. The later are used for low-pressure application, while longitudinal SAW pipes are preferred for high-pressure application such as gas pipes. Longitudinal SAW pipes are more than 25 mm in thickness. In terms of production costs, it costs less to manufacture helical SAW pipes as compared to longitudinal SAW pipes. In the manufacturing process of submerged-arc welded pipes, the heat necessary to melt the edges of metal to be joined together is generated with the help of a concealed arc with no pressure between the two sides of the weld.

India has an installed SAW pipes capacity of 6.5 lakh tonnes, with four major players. These are Jindal Saw Limited, Well Spun Gujarat Limited, PSL Limited, and Man Industries. A huge export potential exists for SAW pipes. Exports and imports during FY05 were Rs 11.9 bn and Rs 0.6 bn respectively.

10. Typewriters

Computers have largely replaced typewriters. In line with the falling demand, production of typewriters has declined in the last few years. The manufacturers in the organised sector are capable of manufacturing the entire range of typewriters including electronic typewriters. Domestic producers are able to meet the demand for typewriters in the country. There exists a huge potential for exports of typewriters to the developing countries. During FY05, imports and exports of typewriters stood at Rs 3.2 mn and Rs 77 mn respectively.

11. Bicycle Industry

The Indian bicycle industry can be categorised into two segments, those manufacturing bicycle parts, and those manufacturing complete bicycles. Majority of bicycle parts and components are manufactured in the small-scale sector, since most of the components other than free wheels and single piece hubs are reserved for the small-scale sector. Large units are permitted to manufacture bicycle frames, chains, rims, and that too only for captive consumption. Complete bicycles are manufactured in the organised sector. Four companies account for over 90% of total bicycle production in the country.

The Indian bicycle industry conforms to well-accepted quality standards in the international market. The industry is taking efforts to increase exports.

12. Sewing Machines

In India, the manufacture of conventional hand operated sewing machines is reserved for the small-scale sector. Domestic demand for these is fully met by the Indian manufacturers. There exists a huge potential for exports of sewing machines to developing countries. During FY05, exports and imports of sewing machines were Rs 0.6 bn and Rs 4.8 bn respectively.

13 . Plain Paper Copier

Plain paper copier, a device used for reproducing copies of documents, typescripts, photographs, among others has become a very important office automation device. At present, there are only 12 units in the country manufacturing this device and most of them have technical collaboration with foreign companies. The introduction of the low priced personal copier has altered the demand pattern for plain paper copiers. The personal copiers are more user friendly and come with customer replaceable toner cartridge and plate receptor drums. Exports and imports of plain paper copiers during FY05 were an approximate Rs 159 mn and Rs 1.6 bn respectively.

Outlook

We expect demand in the engineering sector to remain healthy primarily on account of the Government’s increased thrust on infrastructure development. The continuing growth of the manufacturing sector and favourable regulatory policies would provide further boost to the sector’s growth. Fresh investments in the power equipment, metals, oil & gas, and petrochemicals industries, coupled with robust industrial activity is expected to drive the growth momentum in the capital goods industry in the near term.

Investment projects worth Rs 218.6 bn were outstanding, as at the end of January 2007, in the electrical and non-electrical machinery industry. The sharp increase in investments (announced/ proposed/under implementation) witnessed during the last 1 year or so, indicates the buoyant demand outlook on the user-industry, and thereby on the future prospects of the machinery industry.

 

*Outstanding Investments as of January each year(Rs bn)
Source:CapEx(CMIE) and D&B Research

 

Engineering Clusters in India

Engineering Clusters in India

Note: Not an exhaustive list
Source: UNIDO, SIDO; Compiled by D&B Research