India's Leading Infrastructure Companies

India's Leading Infrastructure Companies 2015

Indian Railways

Indian Railways is a state-owned enterprise, owned and operated by the Government of India through the Ministry of Railways. It is the largest railway network in India and one of the largest railway networks in the world, with a running track of over 89,000 kms over a route of 65,000 kms, over 9,000 locomotives, over 2.3 lakh wagons, among others. Indian Railways is also home to great talent and excellent organisation focused on operation, efficiency and safety.

Indian Railways is divided into several zones, and further into divisions. At present there are 17 zones and each zone is further divided into geographical divisions, with each having a divisional headquarter. The divisions are the basic unit of operation. There are 68 divisions of Indian Railways.

Indian Railways manufactures much of its rolling stock and heavy engineering units and has set up production units at different parts of the country for the same. The six production units which have been set up with the aim of attaining self-sufficiency are functioning as independent units under the control of the railway board. Approvals for setting up of two more production units have been granted.

Indian Railways is a commonly used mode of public transportation in the country. Over the years there has been a steady increase in passenger traffic output in terms of number of passengers and passenger kilometers. During FY14, it carried 8,472 million passengers. Suburban and mail/express traffic have shown a higher rate of growth. Revenue earning freight traffic in FY14 stood at 1,053.6 million tonnes.

Indian Railways earn a substantial part of their revenue from freight operations, which can be segmented into bulk and other cargo. Indian Railways has predominantly been a bulk freight carrier. Revenue from freight accounted for around 69% of gross earnings. Bulk freight like coal, ores, iron & steel, cement, food grains, fertilisers, POL products, limestone, dolomite, stones other than marble, salt and sugar contributed 89% of the total goods earnings, while commodities other than the above accounted for 9%. Passenger earnings constituted 25% of the gross earnings, of which more than 80% was from express long distance services.

In addition to its key business operations of freight and passenger, Indian Railways is also engaged in several allied services including parcel, catering and production units.

Rail infrastructure in the country needs upgradation and Indian Railways is working towards progressive mechanisation. The steps include induction of high output tamping machines for packing of plain track as well as turnouts, ballast cleaning machines and shoulder ballast cleaning machines for improving drainage of track, dynamic track stabiliser for controlled consolidation of newly laid/maintained track, point and crossing changing machines for laying concrete sleeper turnouts, among others.

The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI)

The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI), responsible for the development, maintenance and management of National Highways in the country, was constituted by an Act of Parliament in 1988. A nodal agency of the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, NHAI manages a network of more than 70,000 km of highways spanning across the length and breadth of the country.

Project Profile
NHAI primarily works under the mandate to implement the National Highways Development Project (NHDP) - a series of major initiatives launched by the GoI aimed at strengthening and upgrading the existing highway network. The primary focus of NHDP projects is to build world class highways that ensure interrupted flow of traffic. The main components of NHDP include Golden Quadrilateral (length of 5,846 km) and North-South & East-West corridors (7,300 km).

Progress of NHDP and other NHAI Projects (As on Aug 31, 2014)

Project Execution & Implementation
NHAI has adopted two procurement modes for implementation of highway projects namely; PPP and Public Funded Projects. PPP projects are further classified into two types namely; BOT (toll) under which the construction, operation, maintenance and tolling responsibility rests with the Concessionaire during the concession period while under BOT (Annuity) toll is collected by the Authority through a bidding process, and the developer receives annuity payments through the concession period. As on March 31, 2014, NHAI had 189 BOT toll based projects and 51 annuity projects.

NHAI is now adopting the OMT (Operate, Maintain and Transfer) concept wherein the concessionaire will undertake maintenance, incident management and toll collection under long term contracts.

NHAI implements NHDP projects with assistance from World Bank (WB), Asian Development Bank (ADB), Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and Japan Bank of International Corporation (JBIC).

Airport Authority of India (AAI)

Airport Authority of India (AAI), a Miniratna public sector enterprise, came into existence in 1995, by merging the National Airports Authority and International Airports Authority of India. AAI is responsible for the creation, upgradation, maintenance and management of civil aviation infrastructure on the ground and air space in the country.

The main functions of AAI include the design, development, operation and maintenance of international and domestic airports and civil enclaves, control and management of the Indian airspace extending beyond the territorial limits of the country, as accepted by ICAO; construction, modification and management of passenger terminals; development and management of cargo terminals at international and domestic airports; development and management of cargo terminals at international and domestic airports; expansion and strengthening of runways, aprons, taxiway, etc; provision of visual aids and provision of communication and navigation aids such as ILS, DVOR, DME, Radar, etc.

AAI manages 125 airports, which include 18 international airports, 78 domestic airports, 26 civil enclaves at defense airfields and seven customs airports. It has entered into joint ventures to upgrade the Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Bengaluru and Nagpur airports on par with international standards.

Details of traffic handled in FY14

AAI provides Air Traffic Management Services (ATMS) over the entire Indian airspace and the surrounding oceanic airspace with ground installations at all airports and 25 other locations. Major air-routes over Indian landmass have radar and VOR/DVOR coverage along with Distance Measuring Equipment. ILS installations are provided at 52 runways along with Night Landing Facilities at most airports and Automatic Message Switching System at 15 airports.

AAI has a dedicated Flight Inspection Unit (FIU) and a fleet of three aircrafts equipped with state-of-the-art fully automatic flight inspection system capable of inspecting ILS up to Cat-III, VOR (CVOR/DVOR), DME, NDB, VGSI (PAPI, VASI), RADAR (ASR/MSSR). AAI undertakes in house flight calibration of nav aids and for the Air force, Navy, Coast Guard and other private airfields in India. AAI established the Bay of Bengal Sea Safety Monitoring Agency (BOBASMA) to provide monitoring services for international oceanic airspace and to support the implementation of Reduce Horizontal Separation.

Air Navigation Services (ANS)
AAI provides Air Navigation Services (ANS) at all civil airports in the country. It manages the Indian air space of nearly 2.8 mn sq nautical miles. It also provides ANS at nine airports not managed by AAI, that are Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Cochin, Legpui, Diu, Latur, Mundra, Nanded and Sathya Sai Puttaparthy Airports.

Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS)
As part of its initiative to provide CNS facilities and support systems for air navigation, AAI has installed Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) at Chennai, Kolkata, Delhi and Mumbai airports. The Sat.Com. Network is being implemented at 80 airports across the country to support data and voice communication, including remote controlled air ground VHF communication to provide VHF coverage over the entire Indian air space, networking of Radars and ATS data communications.

Air Traffic Management (ATM)
AAI is upgrading the ATM infrastructure in order to switch from ground-based navigation to satellite based navigation. Upgradation and modernisation projects are underway at Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Chennai and Kolkata airports.

Recent Projects
In FY14, AAI commissioned new terminal buildings at Chennai, Kolkata, Ranchi, Bhubaneshwar, Puducherry and Goa and modernized ATC Towers in Guwahati and Imphal. It is currently working on the construction of a Greenfield airport in Sikkim.

The Central Electricity Authority (CEA)

The Central ElectricityAuthority (CEA) is India’s apex power sector planning body. It is a Statutory Body constituted under the erstwhile Electricity (Supply) Act, 1948, hereinafter replaced by the Electricity Act, 2003, and assists the Ministry of Power in all technical and economic matters and oversees the development of the power sector in the country. It is responsible for the technical coordination and supervision of programmes, and is also entrusted with a number of statutory functions.

CEA is responsible for overall planning & development of the Power Sector in the country. CEA is a technical organisation that advises and assists the central government in matters relating to the generation, transmission, distribution, trading and utilisation of electricity. CEA has also been entrusted with the responsibility of advising Central and State Regulatory Commissions, State Governments, licensees, generating companies on any matter on which advice is sought or on any matter which shall enable them to operate the electrical system efficiently. Certain other functions as entrusted to CEA as per Electricity Act 2003, include specifying technical standards for construction of electrical plants; safety requirements for construction, operation and maintenance of electrical plants & lines; grid standards for operation and maintenance of transmission lines and the conditions for installation of meters for transmission and supply of electricity.

CEA also regularly publishes monthly reports on performance of various areas of the power sector, such as generation, transmission and distribution of power. It brings out the All India Power Supply Position on a monthly basis, both in terms of energy and peak comprising the requirement, availability and shortage in Million Units (MUs) as well as in percentage and the peak demand, peak met and peak shortage both in terms of Mega Watt (MW) and percentage.

CEA has contributed immensely to the development of the power sector in various specific areas such as introduction of new technologies, techno-economic clearance of projects, generation & transmission planning and development performance, operation and construction monitoring of projects, design & engineering and dissemination of data & statistics.

The power sector in India registered addition of power generation capacity in FY13 and this has been mostly in favour of thermal power generation. Although thrust is being accorded to maximise generation from other conventional and non-conventional sources, coal based generation will continue to be the main stay of electricity generation as steady availability of gas remains a cause for concern. Central Electricity Authority (CEA) plays a pivotal role in optimal utilisation of available coal for the power sector. It also rationalises the Gas supply to Gas based power stations in a gas scarce scenario.

CEA has been playing a proactive role in development of UMPP’s in respect of selection of sites, preparation of technical documents/ studies, tie-up of inputs and the bidding process. During FY13, the Mundra UMPP was fully commissioned. During 2012-13, CEA appraised and accorded concurrence to 6 hydro generation schemes aggregating to 2516 MW capacity.

CEA also renders engineering and consultancy services to utilities. During 2012-13, CEA rendered design and engineering of 3380 MW approx. of Hydro Projects including projects of NTPC, Meghalaya SEB, SJVNL as well as Punatsangchhu Stg. I of 6x200MW and Stg. II of 6x170 MW in Bhutan and review consultancy for Salma project (3x14 MW) in Afghanistan.

CEA is actively involved in planning and development of transmission system in the country, which includes evolving long term and short term Transmission Plans. As of July 2013, except southern region all the four regions are inter-connected in synchronous mode and are operating in parallel.

Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI)

The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI), established in 1997, is a statutory body created under the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997 (amended in 2000), to regulate telecom and broadcasting services in the country. TRAI has successfully transitioned the Indian telecom market from a governmentowned monopoly to a multi-operator, multi-service open competitive market. The National Telecom Policy, 2012, which aims to provide telecommunication services to all citizens, has further empowered TRAI.

Since inception, TRAI has been making regulatory and policy-related recommendations to the Government, pertaining to issues such as like promoting competition, mergers and acquisitions, expediting growth of rural telephony, accelerating growth of Internet and broadband, licensing framework, spectrum management, infrastructure sharing, national broadband plan, telecom equipment manufacturing, telecom infrastructure policy and green telecom.

TRAI is authorised to fix/revise tariffs, set standards of quality of service, ensure compliance with the set standards, fix terms and conditions of interconnectivity, regulate interconnection charges and specify rates at which services are to be provided to the users, recommend conditions for entry of new service providers and terms and conditions of license to a service provider. TRAI strives to protect the interest of consumers as well service providers and ensure fair competition through its policy framework.

The authority also deals with issues pertaining to monitoring of tariff policy, commercial and technical aspects of interconnection, principles of call routing and call handover, free choice and equal ease of access for the public to different service providers, resolution of conflicts that may arise due to market developments and diverse network structures for various telecom services, need for up-gradation of the existing network and systems, and development of forums for interaction amongst service providers and interaction of the Authority with consumer organisations

TRAI also makes recommendations to the Department of Telecommunications and to the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. To formulate recommendations and suggest policy initiatives, TRAI interacts with various stakeholders such as the service providers, their organisations, Consumer Advocacy Groups/Consumer Organisations and other experts in this field.

Telecom sector
In the telecom sector, TRAI formulates policies and programmes pertaining to rural telephone network, expansion of telephone network, entry of private sector in both basic and value added service; technical compatibility and effective interconnection between service providers, telecommunication technology, implementation of National Telecom Policy, quality of service and Universal Service Obligation.

The authority deals with aspects such as telecom tariffs, unified licensing, spectrum management, interconnection, 3G/4G, value-added services (VAS), intelligent network, telecom infrastructure, green telecommunication, mobile number portability (MNP) and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPV6).

In 2013, TRAI addressed the issue of spectrum pricing by making suitable recommendations to the Government for the auction of spectrum in different bands.

Broadcasting sector
In the broadcasting sector, TRAI deals with digital addressable cable TV, FM radio, DTH, interconnection, cable TV, mobile TV, satellite radio, terrestrial TV, IPTV, community radio and conditional access system (CAS).

The authority undertook digitisation of the broadcasting sector in 2013 order to provide better quality of service and wider choice to consumers. TRAI has also issued regulations restricting the airtime held by advertisements on television channels.

In order to provide cost effective broadcasting services to the consumer, TRAI has laid down the regulatory framework in the form of tariff orders. The tariffs in Non-CAS areas, notified CAS areas and for addressable Platforms such as DTH, HITS, IPTV, etc. are governed by the respective tariff orders issued by the authority.